Gardens as Tools for Community Development
9th Grade English/Social Studies Block
Reading Applications: Literary Text
1. Identify and explain an authorís use of direct and indirect
characterization, and ways in which characters reveal traits about
themselves, including dialect, dramatic monologues and soliloquies.
*****2. Analyze the influence of setting in relation to other literary
elements.† VERY IMPORTANT
3. Identify ways in which authors use conflicts, parallel plots and
subplots in literary texts.
4. Evaluate the point of view used in a literary text.
5. Interpret universal themes across different works by the same
author and different authors.
9. Analyze ways in which the author conveys mood and tone through
word choice, figurative language and syntax.
*****10. Explain how authors use symbols to create broader meanings. VERY IMPORTANT
1.† Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from
printed material, and keep a list of writing ideas.
******2. Determine the usefulness of and apply appropriate pre-writing tasks
(e.g., background reading, interviews or surveys).
5. Use organizational strategies (e.g., notes and outlines) to plan
6. Organize writing to create a coherent whole with an effective and
engaging introduction, body and conclusion and a closing sentence
that summarizes, extends or elaborates on points or ideas in the
7. Use a variety of sentence structures and lengths (e.g., simple,
compound and complex sentences; parallel or repetitive sentence
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension
Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies
1. Apply reading comprehension strategies, including making
predictions, comparing and contrasting, recalling and summarizing
and making inferences and drawing conclusions.
2. Answer literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing questions
to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and
electronic and visual media.
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and
1. Identify and understand organizational patterns (e.g., cause-effect,
problem-solution) and techniques, including repetition of ideas,
syntax and word choice, that authors use to accomplish their purpose
and reach their intended audience.
******2. Critique the treatment, scope and organization of ideas from multiple
sources on the same topic.
******3. Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs, diagrams,
cutaways and overlays.
1. Write narratives that:
a. sustain reader interest by pacing action and developing an
engaging plot (e.g., tension and suspense);
b. use a range of strategies and literary devices including figurative
language and specific narration; and,
c. include an organized, well developed structure.
2. Write responses to literature that organize an insightful
interpretation around several clear ideas, premises or images and
support judgments with specific references to the original text, to
other texts, authors and to prior knowledge.
******3. Write business letters, letters to the editor and job applications that:
a. address audience needs, stated purpose and context in a clear
and efficient manner;
b. follow the conventional style appropriate to the text using
proper technical terms;
c. include appropriate facts and details;
d. exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies; and
e. provide a sense of closure to the writing.
4. Write informational essays or reports, including research that:
a. pose relevant and tightly drawn questions that engage the
b. provide a clear and accurate perspective on the subject;
c. create an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose,
audience and context;
d. support the main ideas with facts, details, examples and
explanations from sources; and
*****e. document sources and include bibliographies.
1. Use correct spelling conventions.
2. Use correct capitalization and punctuation.
3. Use clauses (e.g., main, subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerund,
4. Use parallel structure to present items in a series and items
juxtaposed for emphasis.
5. Use proper placement of modifiers.
6. Maintain the use of appropriate verb tenses.
Grammar and Usage
1. Compose open-ended questions for research, assigned or personal
interest, and modify questions as necessary during inquiry and
investigation to narrow the focus or extend the investigation.
2. Identify appropriate sources and gather relevant information from
multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases,
electronic resources and Internet-based resources).
3. Determine the accuracy of sources and the credibility of the author
by analyzing the sourcesí validity (e.g., authority, accuracy,
objectivity, publication date and coverage, etc.).
4. Compile and organize important information and select appropriate
sources to support central ideas, concepts and themes.
5. Integrate quotations and citations into written text to maintain a flow
*****6. Use style guides to produce oral and written reports that give
proper credit for sources and include an acceptable format for source
acknowledgement.† USE MLA† FORMAT
7. Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual,
written or multimedia reports, to present information that supports a
clear position about the topic or research question and to maintain an
appropriate balance between researched information and original ideas.
Communication: Oral and Visual
1. Apply active listening strategies (e.g., monitoring message for
clarity, selecting and organizing essential information, noting cues
such as changes in pace) in a variety of settings.
2. Identify types of arguments used by the speaker, such as authority
and appeals to emotion.
3. Analyze the credibility of the speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted
or biased material) and recognize fallacies of reasoning used in
presentations and media messages.
4. Identify the speakerís choice of language and delivery styles (e.g.,
repetition, appeal to emotion, eye contact) and explain how they
contribute to meaning