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Union Terminal, Showing Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Cleveland, Ohio

 

Union Terminal, Showing Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Cleveland, Ohio (detail)

This portion of the EXPLORING CLEVELAND HISTORY web site is designed to enable individual students to explore various skill development areas on their own.

CITATION FORMS

You must indicate the source of every direct quotation you use in any research essay. It is also important to cite the source of arguments and ideas you may take from a book, an article or another author. The way to do this is in footnotes (at the bottom of the page) or endnotes (at the end of the paper). Some instructors will allow you to employ in-text references enclosed in parentheses -- but be sure to check before using them since this form of annotation is more commonly found in the social sciences (and in other fields) than in history.

If you have a word processor that puts notes at the bottom of the page, learn to use that function; otherwise use endnotes. Avoid quotations and paraphrases of the modern authors you consult. Sources from the period you are writing about may be quoted, but do this sparingly. It is YOUR words and thoughts that are required, and on which you will be graded.

Notes should be indicated in the text by superscipted numbers, located above the "normal" line of print. If your equipment cannot superscript, enclose footnote numbers in brackets like this - [1]. Notes should be numbered consecutively from the beginning to the end of the paper rather than being separately numbered on each page.

Even though the text of your paper is double-spaced, footnotes or endnotes should be single spaced. Leave a line between each specific footnote or endnote reference.

The first mention of a source in the footnote or endnote should contain the following information in the order given here:

BOOK

  • name of author(s) in normal naming order (followed by a comma)
  • title of book (underlined/italicized)
  • city of publication (within an open parenthesis and followed by a full colon)
  • publisher (followed by a comma)
  • year of publication (followed by a close parenthesis and a comma)
  • page references (followed by a period to conclude the reference)

    JOURNAL ARTICLE
  • name of author(s) in normal naming order (followed by a comma)
  • title of article (within quotation marks)
  • name of journal (underlined/italicized)
  • volume number (and issue, if known, separated by a full colon) of journal
  • year (and season or month, if known) of publication (within parentheses and followed by a comma)
  • page references (followed by a period to conclude the reference)
ARTICLE IN A COLLECTION
  • name of author(s) in normal naming order (followed by a comma)
  • title of article (within quotation marks)
  • the word "in"
  • name of editor(s) of collection (followed by the abbreviation "ed." for "editor" or "eds." for "editors" and a comma)
  • title of collection (underlined/italicized and followed by a comma)
  • city of publication (within an open parenthesis and followed by a full colon)
  • publisher (followed by a comma)
  • year of publication (followed by a close parenthesis and a comma)
  • page references (followed by a period to conclude the reference)

Note that these examples do not cover all possibilities, but that the general punctuation rule employed is that cited items of information are separated from one another by commas. See the added information included in the citations listed below.

Here is an listing for a book with a single author(in multiple volumes with later editions):

Alfred Cobban, A History of Modern France, Vol. I :1715-1799, 3rd ed. (Baltimore: Pelican, 1963), 18.
A textbook with multiple authors (as well as multiple volumes and various editions) would be cited as:
John B. Harrison, Richard E. Sullivan, and Dennis Sherman, A Short History of Western Civilization, Volume II: Since 1600, 7th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990), 18.
An article from a journal would be cited as:
William Monter, "The Historiography of European Witchcraft," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 9 (1978), 450.
An article from the second edition of a collection would be cited as:
William Monter, "Protestant Wives, Catholic Saints, and the Devil's Handmaid: Women in the Age of Reformations," in Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz, eds., Becoming Visible: Women in European History, 2d ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), 206.
Note especially the use of punctuation in each of these references. Note also that the place of publication is always a city, never a state or country. If the place of publication is not one of the major publishing centers [for example, New York, London, Boston, Paris, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago], indicate both the city and the state.

Later references to the same title can give just the author's family name and the page number (separated by a comma and followed by a period to conclude the reference). Note that this also is the form used for in-text references (enclosed in parentheses) when this form of annotation is permitted by your instructor.

In either the primary citation or those that follow, do not use "p." or "pg." Do not use Latin reference abbreviations such as ibid., idem, or op.cit. Few any longer understand the meaning of these terms, and they look distinctly old-fashioned.

Remember: your aim in using annotation is to present source reference information as clearly and as fully as possible. More information on footnotes can be found quickly in Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1993).


A Social History and the City Web Site
Department of History, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio USA
Web Site Design: Lee A. Makela (l.makela@csuohio.edu)
Web Site Maintainance: Candi Cruz (webmaster@csuohio.edu)
Last Web Site Update: February 20, 2000