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Copyright @ 1999 by CROOKED RIVER: Exploring Social and Urban History (CR). Unless otherwise noted, the author of each article has granted permission for copies of that article to be used for educational purposes in the classroom on the condition that

(1) these copies are not distributed for profit;

(2) that appropriate notice of copyright is attached to each copy and that the author and the journal are appropriately identified; and

(3) the Editor of CR is informed of such use.

All other rights are reserved in accordance with the fair use provisions of U.S. Copyright Law of 1976. Anyone wishing to reproduce material from the CR for any other purpose than stipulated above must obtain written permission. CR grants its authors authorization to republish their own work in any form so long as they identify CR as the original source.

Libraries are authorized to add CR to their collection in either electronic or hardcopy format.

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This site is a part of the Social History and the City Project of the Department of History, Cleveland State University , Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
It was designed by Dr. Donald Ramos. Comments should be directed to site webmaster at
Copyright 1999 Cleveland State University