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Baruch Spinoza: (1636-1677) Philosopher

Baruch Spinoza was born in Amsterdam in 1632.  He was raised in the Portuguese-Jewish Community of Amsterdam. 

In 1656 he was expelled from the Jewish community for his philosophical beliefs.  Spinoza denied the immortality of the soul; strongly rejected the notion of a providential God -- the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and claimed that the Law was neither literally given by God nor any longer binding on Jews.

Further Reading:

For samples of Spinoza philosophy

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Kemerling, Garth: More on Philosophy   

Mihal, John., Cleveland Plain Dealer. September 10,1937. ‘Wisdom’s House’ Dwells in Hebrew Cultural Garden.