Art & Sculpture



Academic Essays



Gardens as Tools for Community Development

Jennifer Lewis

Lakewood High School

9th Grade English/Social Studies Block


Reading Applications: Literary Text

1. Identify and explain an authorís use of direct and indirect

characterization, and ways in which characters reveal traits about

themselves, including dialect, dramatic monologues and soliloquies.

*****2. Analyze the influence of setting in relation to other literary


3. Identify ways in which authors use conflicts, parallel plots and

subplots in literary texts.

4. Evaluate the point of view used in a literary text.

5. Interpret universal themes across different works by the same

author and different authors.

9. Analyze ways in which the author conveys mood and tone through

word choice, figurative language and syntax.

*****10. Explain how authors use symbols to create broader meanings. VERY IMPORTANT

Writing Processes

1.† Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from

printed material, and keep a list of writing ideas.

******2. Determine the usefulness of and apply appropriate pre-writing tasks

(e.g., background reading, interviews or surveys).

5. Use organizational strategies (e.g., notes and outlines) to plan


6. Organize writing to create a coherent whole with an effective and

engaging introduction, body and conclusion and a closing sentence

that summarizes, extends or elaborates on points or ideas in the


7. Use a variety of sentence structures and lengths (e.g., simple,

compound and complex sentences; parallel or repetitive sentence

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension

Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies

1. Apply reading comprehension strategies, including making

predictions, comparing and contrasting, recalling and summarizing

and making inferences and drawing conclusions.

2. Answer literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing questions

to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and

electronic and visual media.

Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and

Persuasive Text

1. Identify and understand organizational patterns (e.g., cause-effect,

problem-solution) and techniques, including repetition of ideas,

syntax and word choice, that authors use to accomplish their purpose

and reach their intended audience.

******2. Critique the treatment, scope and organization of ideas from multiple

sources on the same topic.

******3. Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs, diagrams,

cutaways and overlays.

Writing Applications

1. Write narratives that:

a. sustain reader interest by pacing action and developing an

engaging plot (e.g., tension and suspense);

b. use a range of strategies and literary devices including figurative

language and specific narration; and,

c. include an organized, well developed structure.

2. Write responses to literature that organize an insightful

interpretation around several clear ideas, premises or images and

support judgments with specific references to the original text, to

other texts, authors and to prior knowledge.

******3. Write business letters, letters to the editor and job applications that:

a. address audience needs, stated purpose and context in a clear

and efficient manner;

b. follow the conventional style appropriate to the text using

proper technical terms;

c. include appropriate facts and details;

d. exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies; and

e. provide a sense of closure to the writing.

4. Write informational essays or reports, including research that:

a. pose relevant and tightly drawn questions that engage the


b. provide a clear and accurate perspective on the subject;

c. create an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose,

audience and context;

d. support the main ideas with facts, details, examples and

explanations from sources; and

*****e. document sources and include bibliographies.

Writing Conventions

1. Use correct spelling conventions.

2. Use correct capitalization and punctuation.

3. Use clauses (e.g., main, subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerund,

infinitive, participial).

4. Use parallel structure to present items in a series and items

juxtaposed for emphasis.

5. Use proper placement of modifiers.

6. Maintain the use of appropriate verb tenses.


Punctuation and


Grammar and Usage


1. Compose open-ended questions for research, assigned or personal

interest, and modify questions as necessary during inquiry and

investigation to narrow the focus or extend the investigation.

2. Identify appropriate sources and gather relevant information from

multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases,

electronic resources and Internet-based resources).

3. Determine the accuracy of sources and the credibility of the author

by analyzing the sourcesí validity (e.g., authority, accuracy,

objectivity, publication date and coverage, etc.).

4. Compile and organize important information and select appropriate

sources to support central ideas, concepts and themes.

5. Integrate quotations and citations into written text to maintain a flow

of ideas.

*****6. Use style guides to produce oral and written reports that give

proper credit for sources and include an acceptable format for source

acknowledgement.† USE MLA† FORMAT

7. Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual,

written or multimedia reports, to present information that supports a

clear position about the topic or research question and to maintain an

appropriate balance between researched information and original ideas.

Communication: Oral and Visual

1. Apply active listening strategies (e.g., monitoring message for

clarity, selecting and organizing essential information, noting cues

such as changes in pace) in a variety of settings.

2. Identify types of arguments used by the speaker, such as authority

and appeals to emotion.

3. Analyze the credibility of the speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted

or biased material) and recognize fallacies of reasoning used in

presentations and media messages.

4. Identify the speakerís choice of language and delivery styles (e.g.,

repetition, appeal to emotion, eye contact) and explain how they

contribute to meaning